This report from BIS (now BEIS) sets out the UK’s postions in science and innovation in the international context. It provides insights on the international benchmarking of the UK science and innovation system. The findings of this report are intended to provide a basis for future discussion with the science, research, innovation, higher and further education and business communities on the future shape and scale of the UK’s science and innovation system.

It finds that science and innovation systems are complex and made up of a large number of complementary elements; that their effectiveness is crucially determined by how well the elements interact within and respond to the demands of the broader economic and societal system; and that different countries succeed with different mixtures of inputs and structures. International benchmarking is therefore challenging.